To improve safety, reliability and minimize liability of fixed equipment by learning common damage mechanisms in the refining and petrochemical industry as covered in API 571. The roles of the engineer and inspector in identifying affected materials and equipment, critical factors, appearance or morphology of damage, prevention and mitigation, inspection, and monitoring will be covered to introduce the concepts of service-induced deterioration and failure modes. This course is intended for anyone interested in gaining a fundamental understanding of damage mechanisms.

A thorough understanding of the damage mechanisms covered in API RP 571 will greatly assist with API 579 and API 580/581 evaluations.

Engineers, inspectors, designers, and maintenance personnel who are involved in designing, operating, maintaining, repairing, inspecting, and analyzing pressure vessels, piping, tanks, and pipelines for safe operations in the refining, petrochemical, and other related industries.

Introduction to Carbon and Alloy Steel Metallurgy
Introduction to Stainless Steel Metallurgy
Base Metal and Filler Metal Specifications – ASME Section II Parts A and C
Welding Metallurgy of Carbon and Alloy Steels

I) General Damage Mechanisms
Mechanical and Metallurgical Failure Mechanisms
– Graphitization and softening (i.e., spheroidization)
– Temper embrittlement
– Strain aging
– 885°F embrittlement
– Sigma-phase embrittlement
– Brittle fracture
– Creep/stress rupture
– Short-term overheating—stress rupture
– Steam blanketing
– Dissimilar metal weld (DMW) cracking
– Thermal shock
– Erosion/erosion-corrosion
– Cavitation
– Mechanical, thermal, and vibration-Induced fatigue
– Refractory degradation
– Reheat cracking

Uniform or Localized Loss of Thickness
– Galvanic corrosion, atmospheric corrosion
– Corrosion under insulation (CUI)
– Cooling water corrosion, boiler water condensate corrosion
– CO2 corrosion
– Flue gas dew point corrosion
– Microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)
– Soil corrosion
– Caustic corrosion
– De-alloying
– Graphitic corrosion

High Temperature Corrosion, 400°F (204°C)
– Oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, decarburization
– Metal dusting, fuel ash corrosion
– Nitriding

Environment-Assisted Cracking
– Chloride stress corrosion cracking (Cl-SCC)
– Corrosion fatigue
– Caustic stress corrosion cracking (caustic embrittlement)
– Ammonia stress corrosion cracking
– Liquid metal embrittlement (LME)
– Hydrogen embrittlement (HE)

II) Refining Industry Damage Mechanisms Uniform or Localized Loss in Thickness Phenomena

– Amine corrosion
– Ammonium bisulfide corrosion (i.e., alkaline sour water)
– Ammonium chloride corrosion
– Hydrochloric acid (HCl) corrosion
– High temp H2/H2S corrosion
– Hydrofluoric (HF) acid corrosion
– Naphthenic acid corrosion (NAC)
– Phenol (carbonic acid) corrosion
– Phosphoric acid corrosion
– Sour water corrosion (acidic)
– Sulfuric acid corrosion

Environment-Assisted Cracking
– Polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PASCC)
– Amine stress corrosion cracking
– Wet H2S damage (blistering/HIC/SOHIC/SCC)
– Hydrogen stress cracking—HF
– Carbonate stress corrosion cracking

Other Mechanisms
– High temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA) and titanium hydriding

All participants must bring the API RP 571 Code to this class.